The brain is the central organ of the human nervous system, responsible for sensory perception, the functions of all systems of the body and cognitive abilities. The study of the brain structure and functions is important for many spheres of knowledge including evolutionary biology, anthropology, psychology, neuroscience, surgery, and biomedical engineering.
The human brain has a bilateral symmetry and can be anatomically divided into hindbrain, midbrain, and forebrain. Hindbrain includes structures called myelencephalon (forming medulla oblongata) and metencephalon (comprising the pons and cerebellum). Midbrain or mesencephalon connects hindbrain with the forebrain, which is composed of the diencephalon and telencephalon.The cerebral cortex contains about 100 billion neurons and nearly a trillion glial cells (1).
The forebrain structures in the model are shown in brown, while all the other structures are depicted in gray. The largest part of the brain is the cerebrum. It is covered with the cerebral cortex, which has numerous grooves and curves. It is divided in two hemispheres and each hemisphere has its own lobes — frontal, parietal, occipital, temporal, and insular. The cerebral cortex is responsible for the most complicated reactions of the human brain and mental activity.
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