Wiley, Monash University (Australia)

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At the beginning of the 20th century French physician Renee Le Fort introduced classification of the fractures involving the maxillary bone and surrounding structures. He described three main types of fractures that may occur as a result of falling from height, road accident or strong punch in the face.

The first type of fracture is called horizontal or lower. It extends from piriform aperture of the nose, slightly above the bottom of the maxillary sinus, and affects the lower third of the pterygoid process of the sphenoid bone. The second type of fracture — pyramidal or medium — passes from the nose through the lacrimal bone, frontal bone of the upper jaw and the lower parts of the orbital foramen to the pterygoid plate of the sphenoid bone. The third type also passes through the nose but the rift runs higher than in the previous case, extending to the zygomatic arch.

  • Project supervisor, 3D visualisation:
    Ivan Konstantinov
  • 3D-modeller:
    Alex Kovalevsky
  • Science consultant:
    Yury Stefanov, Ph.D.
Congratulation for your very succesful 3D HIV model
Prof. Françoise BARRÉ-SINOUSSI
Nobel Prize in Medicine 2008, Pasteur Institute, Paris, France